Clusters of financially incentivized chronic pain patients using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF)

Luis E. Aguerrevere, Kevin W. Greve, Kevin J. Bianchini, Matthew R. Calamia, Kelly L. Curtis, Veronica Ramirez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The study explored the efficacy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Validity Scales in profiling chronic pain patients with external financial incentives like workers' compensation claims. Two distinct clusters of patients were identified through cluster analysis, each displaying different MMPI-2-RF profiles. Cluster 1 had valid responding with certain elevations on somatic and low positive emotion scales, whereas Cluster 2 consisted of patients overreporting on the Validity Scales with elevations on 7 out of the 9 Restructured Clinical scales. Patients in Cluster 2 reported higher pain and disability, showed fewer spine-related imaging findings, and were more likely to be tagged as probable or definite malingerers. These findings underline the MMPI-2-RF Validity Scales' usefulness in distinguishing between credible and noncredible responses in chronic pain patients within a medico-legal context.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)634-644
Number of pages11
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2018

ASJC Scopus Subject Areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


  • Cluster analysis
  • MMPI-2-RF
  • Psychological overlay
  • Spine pain
  • Symptom overreporting

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