Differences in Attachment, Resilience, and Negative Affect in Non-Treatment-Seeking and Treatment-Seeking EMS Professionals

Jose Carbajal, Warren N. Ponder, Lauren Malthaner, Kathryn Shahan, Katelyn Jetelina, Jeanine Galusha, Donna Schuman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Emergency medical service (EMS) professionals have a stressful vocation, inarguably worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic, which affects their mental health and makes them a vulnerable population warranting further study. However, to date, no published research has compared non-treatment and treatment-seeking EMS professionals in the same greater metropolitan area. In this study, we examined differences and similarities among the non-treatment-seeking EMS professionals (n = 57) from a local EMS agency and treatment-seeking EMS personnel (n = 53) from a non-profit community treatment center on six assessment instruments that measure attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, resilience, depression, generalized anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidality. The Mann-Whitney U test revealed attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were significantly higher in the treatment-seeking sample compared to the non-treatment-seeking group.

Original languageUndefined/Unknown
JournalFaculty Publications
StatePublished - Jun 14 2022

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