Validation of the PCL-5, PHQ-9, and GAD-7 in a Sample of First Responders

Aazi Ahmadi, Jeanine M. Galusha, Warren N. Ponder, Jose Carbajal, Donna L. Schuman, James Whitworth, R. Andrew Yockey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study aimed to validate certain measures for assessing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and generalized anxiety in treatment-seeking first responders (FRs) using confirmatory factor analysis on a sample of 390 FRs. The findings indicated that a seven-factor hybrid configuration was the best fit for assessing PTSD. For depression, a two-factor structure encompassing cognitive-affective and somatic depression was the best fit, while generalized anxiety was found to be a unidimensional construct. The study suggests the need for follow-up studies to validate these measures across different subtypes of FRs. This validation contributes to the existing literature, has clinical implications for healthcare providers treating FRs, and provides recommendations for further research in this area.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)467-476
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2023

ASJC Scopus Subject Areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


  • PTSD
  • assessment
  • depression
  • first responders
  • generalized anxiety

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